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Difference between MICRO-PROCESSOR AND MICRO-CONTROLLER

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Microprocessor assimilates the function of a central processing unit (CPU) on to a single integrated circuit (IC).
     Micro controller can be considered as a small computer which has a processor and some other components in order to make it a computer.
Microprocessors are mainly used in designing general purpose systems from small to large and complex systems like super computers.
    Micro controllers are used in automatically controlled devices.
Microprocessors are basic components of personal computers.
    Micro controllers are generally used in embedded systems
Computational capacity of microprocessor is very high. Hence can perform complex tasks.
    Less computational capacity when compared to microprocessors. Usually used for simpler tasks.
A microprocessor based system can perform numerous tasks.
     A micro controller based system can perform single or very few tasks.
Microprocessors have integrated Math Coprocessor. Complex mathematical calculations which involve floating point can be performed with great ease.
     Micro controllers do not have math co-processors. They use software to perform floating point calculations which slows down the device.
The main task of microprocessor is to perform the instruction cycle repeatedly. This includes fetch, decode and execute.
     In addition to performing the tasks of fetch, decode and execute, a micro controller also controls its environment based on the output of the instruction cycle.
In order to build or design a system (computer), a microprocessor has to be connected externally to some other components like Memory (RAM and ROM) and Input / Output ports.
      The IC of a micro controller has memory (both RAM and ROM) integrated on it along with some other components like I / O devices and timers.
The overall cost of a system built using a microprocessor is high. This is because of the requirement of external components.
       Cost of a system built using a micro controller is less as all the components are readily available.
Generally power consumption and dissipation is high because of the external devices. Hence it requires external cooling system.
       Power consumption is less.
The clock frequency is very high usually in the order of Giga Hertz.
        Clock frequency is less usually in the order of Mega Hertz.
Instruction throughput is given higher priority than interrupt latency.
        In contrast, micro controllers are designed to optimize interrupt latency.
Have few bit manipulation instructions
         Bit manipulation is powerful and widely used feature in micro controllers. They have numerous bit manipulation instructions.
Generally microprocessors are not used in real time systems as they are severely dependent on several other components.
         Micro controllers are used to handle real time tasks as they are single programmed, self sufficient and task oriented devices.














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