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Tcp/Ip Protocol

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The Internet protocol suite is the computer networking model and set ofcommunications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks. Itis commonly known as TCP/IP, because its most important protocols, theTransmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP) were thefirst networking protocols defined during its development

·        Applicationlayer

Telnet is an application thatallows remote login to another computer. Typically, such a remote logon willprovide command-line access. Of course, using Telnet requires both client andserver components.

FTP stands for File TransferProtocol. An FTP session allows a user to upload files to, or download filesfrom a remote computer. As with Telnet, both client and server components arenecessary.

SMTP stands for Simple MailTransfer Protocol and is used for transferring email. For example, a typicalmail account in MS Outlook may use SMTP for handling mail.

DNS - Domain Name System -allows IP addresses  to bemapped to domain names, 

·        Transportlayer

Within the TCP/IP stack,transport control is either handled by TCP - Transmission Control Protocol, orby UDP - User Datagram Protocol. The important difference is that TCP usesvirtual circuits. I.e. connections between end-points are established, allowingdata to flow reliably between them.

UDP, on the other hand, doesnot use pre-established circuits, and is thus termed a connectionless transportprotocol. Since circuits do not need to be established in advance, UDPtransport requires less network overhead and is therefore faster. For example,TFTP - Trivial File Transfer Protocol - uses UDP. However, connectionlessprotocols are inherently unreliable. However, if the application itselfimplements some form of reliability checking, then UDP will clearly bepreferable to TCP.

·        Internetworklayer

IP is responsible fortransporting UDP or TCP segments (packets) from end-point to end-point, basedon their IP addresses.

ICMP (Internet ControlMessage Protocol) is used to request the status of network hardware, or torespond to such a request. For example, the Pingcommand uses an ICMP packet.

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