how to design AC to DC power supply

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Power Supply:

This section describes how to generate +5V   DC power supply

The power supply section is the important one. It should deliver constant output regulated power supply for successful working of the project. A 0-12V/1 mA transformer is used for this purpose. The primary of this transformer is connected in to main supply through on/off switch& fuse for protecting from overload and short circuit protection. The secondary is connected to the diodes to convert 12V AC to 12V DC voltage. And filtered by the capacitors ,Which is further regulated to +5v, by using IC 7805.


A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it in one direction with far greater ease than in the other. The most common kind of diode in modern circuit design is the semiconductor diode, although other diode technologies exist. Semiconductor diodes are symbolized in schematic diagrams such as Figurebelow. The term “diode” is customarily reserved for small signal devices, I ≤ 1 A. The term rectifier is used for power devices, I > 1 A.

Semiconductor diode schematic symbol: Arrows indicate the direction of electron current flow.

When placed in a simple battery-lamp circuit, the diode will either allow or prevent current through the lamp, depending on the polarity of the applied voltage. (Figure below)

Diode operation: (a) Current flow is permitted; the diode is forward biased. (b) Current flow is prohibited; the diode is reversed biased.

When the polarity of the battery is such that electrons are allowed to flow through the diode, the diode is said to be forward-biased. Conversely, when the battery is “backward” and the diode blocks current, the diode is said to be reverse-biased. A diode may be thought of as like a switch: “closed” when forward-biased and “open” when reverse-biased.

Oddly enough, the direction of the diode symbol’s “arrowhead” points against the direction of electron flow. This is because the diode symbol was invented by engineers, who predominantly use conventional flownotation in their schematics, showing current as a flow of charge from the positive (+) side of the voltage source to the negative (-). This convention holds true for all semiconductor symbols possessing “arrowheads:” the arrow points in the permitted direction of conventional flow, and against the permitted direction of electron flow

Transformer Construction (single-phase)

transformer basic construction

  • Where:
  •   VP  -  is the Primary Voltage
  •   VS  -  is the Secondary Voltage
  •   NP  -  is the Number of Primary Windings
  •   NS  -  is the Number of Secondary Windings
  •   Φ (phi)  -  is the Flux Linkage

Notice that the two coil windings are not electrically connected but are only linked magnetically. A single-phase transformer can operate to either increase or decrease the voltage applied to the primary winding. When a transformer is used to “increase” the voltage on its secondary winding with respect to the primary, it is called a Step-up transformer. When it is used to “decrease” the voltage on the secondary winding with respect to the primary it is called a Step-down transformer.

The Diode Bridge Rectifier

diode bridge rectifier

The four diodes labelled D1 to D4 are arranged in “series pairs” with only two diodes conducting current during each half cycle. During the positive half cycle of the supply, diodes D1 and D2conduct in series while diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flows through the load as shown below.

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