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Design and application of continuously variable transmission system
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Design and application of continuously variable transmission system

Category : Automobile

Sub Category : Vehicle

Project Code : ITMA10

Project Abstract

Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) offers a continuum of gear ratios between desired limits. This allows the engine to operate more time in the optimum range. In contrast, traditional automatic and manual transmissions have several fixed transmission ratios forcing the engine to operate outside the optimum range. The need for a transmission system and the working principle of CVT has been discussed in depth. An attempt has been made to understand the contribution of Hydraulic Actuators, which is an integral part of a CVT. Furthermore, the question of how and why a Torque Converter has effectively replaced a conventional clutch has been answered. The materials used, constructional aspects and stress analysis of the belt has been discussed in detail. A graphical comparison of fuel efficiency between a manual transmission and a CVT in different high end vehicles is included. Recent developments in clamping force control for the push belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) have resulted in increased efficiency in combination with improved robustness. Current control strategies attempt to prevent macro slip between elements and pulleys at all times for maximum robustness.


A Continuously Variable Transmission operates by varying the working diameter of the two main pulleys in the transmission. The pulleys have V-shaped grooves on which the connecting belt is mounted. One side of the pulley is fixed; the other side is moveable, operated by a hydraulic actuator. The hydraulic actuator can increase or decrease the amount of space between the two sides of the pulley. This makes the belt to ride lower or higher along the inner walls of the pulley, depending on driving conditions, thereby changing the gear ratio. This action is infinitely variable with no “steps” in between. Thus a CVT can maintain the engine in its optimum rpm range, in turn boosting the efficiency and gas Mileage. As explained above the two pulley widths are adjusted by oil pressure in the hydraulic actuator which responds to position of the throttle, speed, and other conditions, which are sensed by microprocessors & other sensors.
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